This paper proposes a conceptual framework for online teaching and learning during a global crisis, such as the health crisis created by the COVID-19 Pandemic in the year 2020. The paper argues that adopting a combinatorial, ecological approach including five types of affordances, i.e. cultural, social, technological, cognitive and affective affordances can be instrumental in improving the process of teaching and learning in an online learning environment. The authors believe that through proper training, teachers can become more heedful of and knowledgeable about the five types of affordances that the online ecology of learning and teaching offers and can exploit them to deliver better lessons and develop and conduct more practical assessments. It is likewise suggested that students can enjoy better learning experiences, if through proper orientation and preparation, they gain the requisite knowledge about, and master the relevant skills in, identifying and using the relevant affordances in the online learning ecology. In addition, it is proposed that course-related surveys conducted throughout and at the end of each course can provide significant insights as to the availability and applicability of the affordances provided in the online learning environments. Finally, due to the distinctively complex nature of the online ecology of learning and teaching, the authors consider it of paramount importance to provide ongoing advising services for teachers and students alike in the five areas of affordances discussed in this paper.